Publications

Spray Modeling and Validation | In-Nozzle Flow Simulations | High-Performance Computing | Turbulence Modeling and Validation | Uncertainty Analysis | Combustion and Chemistry | Chemical Kinetics | Low-Temperature Combustion | Alternative Fuels

 

Spray Modeling and Validation

K. Saha, S. Som. M. Battistoni, Y. Li et al., “Numerical Investigation of Two-phase Flow Evolution of In- and Near-nozzle Regions of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine During Needle Transients,” SAE Paper No. 2016-01-0870, SAE International Journal of Engines (2016).

M. Battistoni, C. Poggiani, and S. Som, “Prediction of Nozzle Flow and Jet Characteristics at Start and End of Injection: Transient Behaviors,” SAE International Journal of Engines 9(1) (2016).

K. Saha, S. Som, M. Battistoni, Y. Li, S. Quan, and P.K. Senecal, “Modeling of Internal and Near-nozzle Flow of a GDI Fuel Injector,” Journal of Energy Resource Technology; JERT-16-1023 (2016).

N. Van Dam, S. Som, A. Swantek, and C.F. Powell, “The Effect of Grid Resolution on Predicted Spray Variability Using Multiple Large Eddy Spray Simulations,” Proceedings of the ASME 2016 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2016-9384, Greenville, SC (October 2016).

S. Quan, P.K. Senecal, E. Pomraning, Q. Xue, B. Hu, D. Rajamohan, J.M. Deur, and S. Som, “A one-way coupled volume of fluid and Eulerian-Lagrangian Method for Simulating Sprays,” Proceedings of the ASME 2016 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2016-9390, Greenville, SC (October 2016).

P.K. Senecal, S. Mitra, E. Pomraning, Q. Xue, S. Som, S. Banerjee, B. Hu, K. Liu, D. Rajamohan, and J.M. Deur, “Modeling Fuel Spray Vapor Distribution with Large Eddy Simulation of Multiple Realizations,” accepted for Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power (2015).

Z. Wang, A. Swantek, R. Scarcelli, D. Duke, A. Kastengren, C. Powell, S. Som, R. Reese, K. Freeman, and Y. Zhu, “LES Modeling of Diesel and Gasoline Sprays with Validation Against X-ray Radiography Data,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-0931, SAE 2015 World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2015.

S. Som, “PREFACE: Sprays in Automotive Applications: Part 2,” Atomization and Sprays  (2015).

L. Bravo, Q. Xue, M. Tess, M. Kurman, C. Powell, S. Som, and C.B. Kweon, “Fuel Effects on Nozzle Flow and Spray Using Fully Coupled Eulerian Simulations,” submitted to Proceedings of the ASME Power Conference, Power 2015-49554, San Diego, CA, July 2015.

Q. Xue, M. Battistoni, C.F. Powell, S. Quan, E. Pomraning, P.K. Senecal, D.P. Schmidt, and S. Som, “An Eulerian CFD Model and X-ray Radiography for Coupled Nozzle Flow and Spray in Internal Combustion Engines,” International Journal of Multi-phase Flows 70, 77-88 (2015).

Q. Xue, M. Battistoni, S. Som, S. Quan, P.K. Senecal, E. Pomraning, and D. Schmidt, “Eulerian CFD Modeling of Coupled Nozzle Flow and Spray with Validation Against X-Ray Radiography Data,” SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 7(2), (2014).

S. Quan, M. Dai, E. Pomraning, P.K. Senecal, K. Richards, S. Som, S. Skeen, J. Manin, and L.M. Pickett, “Numerical Simulations of Supersonic Diesel Spray Injection and the Induced Shock,” SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 7(1) (2014).

P.K. Senecal, E. Pomraning, K.J. Richards, and S. Som, “Grid-Convergent Spray Models for Internal Combustion Engine CFD Simulations,” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 136(1), 012204 (2013).

S. Som, D.E. Longman, G. D’Errico, and T. Lucchini, “Comparison and Standardization of Numerical Approaches for the Prediction of Non-Reacting and Reacting Diesel Sprays,” SAE Paper No. 2012-01-1263, SAE 2012 World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2012.

S. Som and S.K. Aggarwal, “Effect of Primary Breakup Modeling on Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engines,” Combustion and Flame 157(6), 1179–1193 (2010).

A.I. Ramirez, S. Som, S.K. Aggarwal, A.L. Kastengren, E. El-Hannouny, D.E. Longman, and C.F. Powell, “Quantitative X-Ray Measurements of High-Pressure Fuel Sprays from a Production Heavy Duty Diesel Injector,” Experiments in Fluids 47(1), 119–134 (2009).

 

In-Nozzle Flow Simulations

M. Battistoni and S. Som, “Prediction of Nozzle Flow and Jet Characteristics at Start and End of Injection: Transient Behaviors,” submitted to JSAE/SAE Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants International Meeting, Kyoto, Japan, September 2015.

D. Duke, M. Battistoni, C. Powell, S. Som, and  D. Schmidt, “Validation of Cavitation Simulations in Submerged Nozzles,” ILASS Americas 27th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Raleigh, NC, May 2015.

M. Battistoni, Q. Xue, and S. Som, “LES of Spray Transients: Start and End of Injection Phenomena,” LES for Internal Combustion Engine Flows, Rueil-Malmaison, France, December 2014.

M. Battistoni, Q. Xue, and  S. Som, “LES of Spray Transients: Start and End of Injection Phenomena,” under review for Oil and Gas Science Technology (2015).

M. Battistoni, D.J. Duke, A.L. Kastengren, A.B. Swantek, F.Z. Tilocco, C.F. Powell, and S. Som, “Effect of Non-Condensable Gas on Cavitating Fuel Nozzles,” Atomization and Sprays (2015).

M. Battistoni, D.J. Duke, A.L. Kastengren, A.B. Swantek, F.Z. Tilocco, C.F. Powell, and S. Som, “Effect of Non-Condensable Gas on Cavitating Fuel Nozzles,” under review for Atomization and Sprays (2014).

H. Zhao, S. Quan, M. Dai, E. Pomraning, P.K. Senecal, Q. Xue, M. Battistoni, and S. Som, “Validation of a Three-Dimensional Internal Nozzle Flow Model Including Automatic Mesh Generation and Cavitation Effects,” accepted for Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power (2014).

M. Battistoni, Q. Xue, S. Som, and E. Pomraning, “Effect of Off-Axis Needle Motion on Internal Nozzle and Near Exit Flow in a Multi-Hole Diesel Injector,” SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 7(1) (2014).

M. Battistoni, S. Som, and D.E. Longman, “Comparison of Mixture and Multifluid Models for In-Nozzle Cavitation Prediction,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 136, 061506, 1–12 (2014).

Q. Xue, M. Battistoni, S. Som, D.E. Longman, H. Zhao, P.K. Senecal, and E. Pomraning, “Three-dimensional Simulations of the Transient Internal Flow in a Diesel Injector: Effects of Needle Movement,” 25th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray

S. Som, D.E. Longman, A.I. Ramirez, and S.K. Aggarwal, “Influence of Nozzle Orifice Geometry and Fuel Properties on Flow and Cavitation Characteristics of a Diesel Injector,” Chapter 6 in Fuel Injection in Automotive Engineering, INTECH Open Access Publisher (April, 2012), ISBN: 979-953-307-771-9.

S. Som, A.I. Ramirez, D.E. Longman, and S.K. Aggarwal, “Effect of Nozzle Orifice Geometry on Spray, Combustion, and Emission Characteristics under Diesel Engines Conditions,” Fuel 90(3), 1267–1276 (2011).

 

High-Performance Computing

K. Kodavasal, K. Harms, P. Srivastava, S. Som, S. Quan, K. Richards, and M. Garcia, “Development of Stiffness-based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme, and Optimization of I/O and Communication, to Enable Massively Parallel High-fidelity Internal Combustion Engine Simulations,” Journal of Energy Resource Technology; JERT-16-1022 (2016).

M.M. Ameen, X. Yang, T.-W. Kuo, and S. Som, “Parallel Methodology to Capture Cyclic Variability in Motored Engines,” International Journal of Engine Research (2016).

J. Kodavasal, N. Van Dam, Y. Pei, K. Harms, K. Maheshwari, A. Wagner, M. Garcia, S. Ciatti, P.K. Senecal, and S. Som, “Sensitivity Analysis on Key CFD Model Inputs for Gasoline Compression Ignition on IBM Blue Gene/Q Supercomputer,” THIESEL 2016 Conference on Thermo- and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Direct Injection Engines, Valencia, Spain (September 2016).

J. Kodavasal, Y. Pei, A. Wagner, K. Harms, M. Garcia, S. Som, and P.K. Senecal, “Global Sensitivity Analysis of a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine Simulation with Multiple Targets,” SAE Paper No. 2016-01-0602, SAE 2016 World Congress, Detroit, MI (April 2016).

J. Kodavasal, K. Harms, P. Srivastava, S. Som, S. Quan, K. Richards, and M. Garcia,  “Development of a Stiffness-based Chemistry Load Balancing Scheme and Optimization of I/O and Communication, to Enable Massively Parallel High-fidelity Internal Combustion Engine Simulations,” Proceedings of the ASME 2015 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, Paper no. ICEF2015-1035, Nov. 8–11 (2015).

P.K. Senecal, S. Mitra, E. Pomraning, Q. Xue, S. Som, S. Banerjee, B. Hu, K. Liu, D. Rajamohan, and J.M. Deur, “Modeling Fuel Spray Vapor Distribution with Large Eddy Simulation of Multiple Realizations,” accepted for Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power (2015).

S. Som, D.E. Longman, S.M. Aithal, R. Bair, M. Garcia, S.P. Quan, K.J. Richards, and P.K. Senecal, “A Numerical Investigation on Scalability and Grid Convergence of Internal Combustion Engine Simulations,” SAE Paper No. 2013-01-1095, SAE 2013 World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2013.

Q. Xue, S. Som, P.K. Senecal, and E. Pomraning, “Large Eddy Simulation of Fuel Spray Under Non-Reacting IC Engine Conditions,” Atomization and Sprays 23(10), 925–955 (2013).

S. Som, D.E. Longman, Z. Luo, M. Plomer, T. Lu, P.K. Senecal, and E. Pomraning, “Simulating Flame Lift-off Characteristics of Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Using Detailed Chemical-Kinetic Mechanisms,” Journal of Energy Resources Technology 134(3), 032204 (2012).

P. Kundu, Y. Pei, and S. Som, “Evaluation of Turbulence Chemistry Interactions under Diesel Engine Conditions with a Multi-Flamelet RIF Model,” accepted for Atomization and Sprays (2014).

 

Turbulence Modeling and Validation

Y. Pei, P. Kundu, G.M. Goldin, and S. Som, “Large Eddy Simulation of a Reacting Spray Flame under Diesel Engine Conditions,” accepted for JSAE/SAE Powertrains, Fuels and Lubricants International Meeting, Kyoto, Japan, September 2015.

X. Yang, S. Gupta, Q. Xue, S. Som, and T-W. Kuo, “LES for IC Engine Flows – Effect of Machine Hardware, Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Sub-grid Scale Models, LES for Internal Combustion Engine Flows, Rueil-Malmaison, France, December 2014.

G. Goldin, P.K. Senecal, E. Pomraning, K.J. Richards, and S. Som, “LES of Diesel Sprays Considering Multi-injection Averaging and Grid-convergent Mesh Resolution,” LES for Internal Combustion Engine Flows, Rueil-Malmaison, France, December 2014.

P.K. Senecal, S. Mitra, E. Pomraning, Q. Xue, S. Som, S. Banerjee, B. Hu, K. Liu, D. Rajamohan, and J. Deur, “Modeling Fuel Spray Vapor Distribution with Large Eddy Simulation of Multiple Realizations,” Proceedings of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2014-5488, Columbus, IN, October 2014.

P.K. Senecal, E. Pomraning, Q. Xue, S. Som, S. Banerjee, B. Hu, K. Liu, and J. Deur, “Large Eddy Simulation of Vaporizing Sprays Considering Multi-Injection Averaging and Grid-Convergent Mesh Resolution,” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 136 (11), 111504: 1-13, 2014.

P.K. Senecal, E. Pomraning, K.J. Richards, and S. Som, “An Investigation of Grid Convergence for Spray Simulations Using an LES Turbulence Model,” SAE Paper No. 2013-01-1083, SAE 2013 World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2013.

Q. Xue, S. Som, P.K. Senecal, and E. Pomraning, “A Study of Grid Resolution and SGS Models for LES under Non-reacting Spray Conditions,” 25th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Pittsburg, PA, May 2013.

S. Som, P.K. Senecal, and E. Pomraning, “Comparison of RANS and LES Turbulence Models against Constant Volume Diesel Experiments,” 24th Annual Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, San Antonio, TX, May, 2012.

 

Uncertainty Analysis

Y. Pei, M.J. Davis, L.M. Pickett, and S. Som, “Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Uncertainty Quantification of Spray A for Different Combustion Vessels,” Combustion and Flame 162(6), 2337-2347 (2015).

Y. Pei, R. Shan, S. Som, T. Lu, D.E. Longman, and M.J. Davis, “Global Sensitivity Analysis of a Diesel Engine Simulation with Multi-Target Functions,” SAE Paper No. 2014-01-1117, SAE 2014 World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2014.

D.Y. Zhou, M.J. Davis, and R.T. Skodje, “Multitarget Global Sensitivity Analysis of n‑Butanol Combustion,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A 117(17), 3569–3584 (2013).

D.Y. Zhou, R.T. Skodje, W. Liu, and M.J. Davis, “Multitarget Global Sensitivity Analysis of n-Butanol Combustion,” 8th U.S. National Combustion Meeting, Western States Section of the Combustion Institute, May 19–22, 2013.

 

Combustion Chemistry

Y. Yao, Y. Pey, B.-J. Zhong. S. Som, T. Lu, and K.H. Luo, “A Compact Skeletal Mechanism for N-Dodecane with Optimized Semi-Global Low-Temperature Chemistry for Diesel Engine Simulations,” Fuel 191, 339–349 (2017).

M. Ameen, P. Kundu, and S. Som, “Novel Tabulated Combustion Model Approach for Lifted Spray Flames with Large Eddy Simulations,” SAE Int. J. Engines 9(4) (2016).

P. Kundu, T. Echekkai, Y. Pei, and S. Som, “An Equivalent Dissipation Rate Model for Capturing History Effects in Non-premixed Flames,” Combustion and Flame (2016).

S. Skeen, J. Manin, L. Pickett, E. Cenker et al., “A Progress Review on Spray A Soot Experiments and Modeling from the 4th Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Workshop,” SAE Paper No. 2016-01-0734, SAE International Journal of Engines (2016).

Y. Pei, S. Som, E. Pomraning, P.K. Senecal, S.A. Skeen, J. Manin, and L.M. Pickett, “Large Eddy Simulation of a Reacting Spray Flame with Multiple Realizations under Compression Ignition Engine Conditions,” Combustion and Flame; 162(12), 4442–4455 (2015).

M. Ameen, Y. Pei, and S. Som, “Computing Statistical Averaged from Large Eddy Simulations of Spray Flames,” SAE Paper No. 2016-01-0585, SAE 2016 World Congress, Detroit, MI (April 2016).

R. Payri, J.P. Viera, Y. Pei, and S. Som, “Experimental and Numerical Study of Lift-off Length and Ignition Delay of a Two-Component Diesel Surrogate,” Fuel (2014).

Y. Pei, W. Liu, M. Mehl, T. Lu, W.J. Pitz, and S. Som, “A Multi-component Blend as a Diesel Fuel Surrogate for Compression Ignition Engine Applications,” accepted for Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power (2015).

Z. Luo, S. Som, S.M. Sarathy, M. Plomer, W.J. Pitz, D.E. Longman, and T. Lu, “Development and Validation of an n-Dodecane Skeletal Mechanism for Diesel Spray-Combustion Applications,” Combustion Theory and Modeling (2014).

S. Som, W. Liu, D.Y. Zhou, G.M. Magnotti, R. Sivaramakrishnan, D.E. Longman, R.T. Skodje, and M.J. Davis, “Quantum Tunneling Affects Engine Performance,” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 4(12), 2021–2025 (2013).

W. Liu, R. Sivaramakrishnan, M.J. Davis, S. Som, D.E. Longman, and T. Lu, “Development of a Reduced Biodiesel Surrogate Model for Compression Ignition Engine Modeling,” 34th Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Poland, pp. 401–409 (2013).

Z. Luo, M. Plomer, T. Lu, S. Som, and D.E. Longman, “A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates with Low Temperature Chemistry for Compression Ignition Engine Applications,” Combustion Theory and Modeling 16(2), 369–385 (2012).

M. Raju, M. Wang, P.K. Senecal, S. Som, and D.E. Longman, “A Reduced Diesel Surrogate Mechanism for Compression Ignition Engine Applications,” ICEF2012-92045, ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, Vancouver, Canada, September 2012.

 

Chemical Kinetics

R.S. Tranter, P.T. Lynch and C.J. Annesley, “Shock Tube Investigation of CH3+CH3OCH3,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A 116(27), 7287–7292 (2012).

G. Altinay and R. G. Macdonald, “Determination of the Rate Constant for the OH(X2Π) + OH(X2Π) → H2O + O(3P) Reaction Over the Temperature Range 295 to 701 K,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A 118(1), 38–54 (2014).

D. Polino, S. J. Klippenstein, L. B. Harding, and Y. Georgievskii, “Predictive Theory for the Addition and Insertion Kinetics of 1CH2 Reacting with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons,” Journal of Physical Chemistry A 117(48), 12677–12692 (2013) [cover story].

N. J. Labbe, R. Sivaramakrishnan, and S. J. Klippenstein, “The Role of Prompt Reactions in Ethanol and Methylformate Low-Pressure Flames,” accepted for Proceedings of the Combusion Institute 35 (2014).

 

Low-Temperature Combustion

J. Kodavasal, C.P. Kolodziej, S.A. Ciatti, and S. Som, “Effect of Injection Parameters, Boost, and Swirl Ratio on Gasoline Compression Ignition Operation at Idle and Low-Load Conditions,” International Journal of Engine Research (2016).

A.A. Moiz, M.M. Ameen, S.-Y. Lee, and S. Som, “Study Of Soot Production on Double Injections of N-Dodecane in CI Engine-Like Conditions,” Combustion and Flame, 173, 123–131 (2016).

P. Kundu, R. Scarcelli, S. Som, A. Ickes, Y. Wang, J. Keidaisch, and M. Rajkumar, “Modeling Heat Loss through Pistons and Effect on Thermal Boundary Coatings in Diesel Engine Simulations using Conjugate Heat Transfer Methods,” SAE Paper No. 2016-01-2235, SAE 2016 International Powertrain, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, Baltimore, MD (October 2016).

J. Kodavasal, S. Ciatti, and S. Som, “Analysis of the Impact of Uncertainties in Inputs on CFD Predictions of Gasoline Compression Ignition,” Proceedings of the ASME 2016 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2016-9328, Greenville, SC (October 2016).

K. Saha, A.M. Moiz, A.I. Ramirez, S. Som, M. Biruduganti, M. Bima, and P. Powell, “Proof-of-Concept Numerical Study for Nox Reduction in Diesel Engines Using Enriched Nitrogen and Enriched Oxygen,” SAE Paper No. 2016-01-8082, SAE 2016 Commercial Vehicle Conference, Rosemont, IL (October 2016).

J. Kodavasal, C. Kolodziej, S. Ciatti, and S. Som, “CFD Simulation of Gasoline Compression Ignition,” accepted for Journal of Energy Resource Technology (2015).

C. Kolodziej, S. Ciatti, J. Kodavasal, and S. Som, “Achieving Stable Engine Operation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using 87AKI Gasoline down to Idle,” SAE Paper No. 2015-01-0832, SAE 2015 World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2015.

P. Kundu, Y. Pei, and S. Som, “Combustion Modeling under Diesel Engine Conditions with Multi-Flamelet RIF Model,” Spring Technical Meeting of the Central States Section of the Combustion Institute, Tulsa, OK, March 2014.

Y. Zhu, N. Salman, K. Freeman, R. Reese, Z. Wang, R. Scarcelli, and S. Som, “Numerical Study of the Combustion Characteristics of a Turbocharged DI Gasoline Engine with Diesel Micro Pilot Ignition and Cooled EGR,” Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2013-19170, Dearborn, MI, October 2013.

Z. Wang, R. Scarcelli, S. Som, S.S. McConnell, N. Salman, Y. Zhu, K. Freeman, K. Hardman, R.A. Reese, P.K. Senecal, M. Raju, and S.D. Gilver, “Multi-Dimensional Modeling and Validation of Combustion in a High-Efficiency Dual-Fuel Light-Duty Engine,” SAE Paper No. 2013-01-1091, SAE 2013 World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2013.

A.I. Ramirez, S. Som, T.P. Rutter, D.E. Longman, and S.K. Aggarwal, “Investigation of the Effects of Rate of Injection on Combustion Phasing and Emission Characteristics: Experimental and Numerical Study,” Spring Technical Meeting of the Central States Section of the Combustion Institute, Dayton, OH, April 2012.

 

Alternative Fuels

A.I. Ramirez, S.K. Aggarwal, S. Som, T. Rutter, and D.E. Longman, “Effects of blending a heavy alcohol (C20H40O) with diesel in a heavy-duty compression ignition engine,” Fuel 136, 89-102 (2014).

P.C. Shukla, A.K. Agarwal, S. Som, and D.E. Longman, “Comparative Study of Nozzle Hole Flow Parameters with Spray Injection Parameters for Diesel, Karanja and Jatropha Biodiesels and their Blends with Diesel,” under review for Applied Energy (2014).

Z. Luo, M. Plomer, T. Lu, S. Som, D.E. Longman, S.M. Sarathy, and W.J. Pitz, “A Reduced Mechanism for Biodiesel Surrogates for Compression Ignition Engine Applications,” Fuel 99, 143–153 (2012).

S. Som and D.E. Longman, “Numerical Study Comparing the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel to Petrodiesel,” Energy and Fuels 25(4), 1373–1386 (2011).

A.I. Ramirez, S. Som, L.A. LaRocco, T.P. Rutter, and D.E. Longman, “Investigating the Use of Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition Engine Applications,” ICES2012-81169, ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division Spring Technical Conference, Torino, Italy, May 2012.

S. Som, Z. Wang, W. Liu, and D.E. Longman, “Comparison of Different Chemical Kinetic Models for Biodiesel Combustion,” Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, ICEF2013-19094, Dearborn, MI, October 2013.

S. Som, D.E. Longman, A.I. Ramirez, and S.K. Aggarwal, “A Comparison of Injector Flow and Spray Characteristics of Biodiesel with Petrodiesel,” Fuel 89, 4014–4024 (2010).

Z. Luo, T. Lu, M.J. Maciaszek, S. Som, and D.E. Longman, “A Reduced Mechanism for High Temperature Oxidation of Biodiesel Surrogates,” Energy and Fuels 24(12), 6283–6293 (2010).